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  Varietal Selection for Arecanut  
 Package of Practices | Integrated Plant Protection (IPM) | Post Harvest Information


Arecanut is one of the very few examples, wherein crop improvement work combined with improved input technologies contributed to revolutionized production and productivity. Evolving high-yielding and improved varieties of arecanut has been successful through the introduction and indigenous and exotic types and selection of mother palms, seed nuts and seedlings. In recent years, hybridization and exploitation of dwarfing genes for breeding dwarf and high-yielding varieties have been initiated.Germplasm repository at CPCRI regional station, Vittal, Karnataka, consists of 113 accessions. This includes 23 exotic introductions from Fiji, Mauritius, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Vietnam, Singapore and Australia, representing 6 species of Areca and 90 indigenous types obtained from different parts of India. Screening of germplasm accessions led to released of several high-yielding varieties, like the following:

1.Mangala:  It is an introduction from China. A semi-tall variety, it has partially drooping crown with sell spread leaves and more number of leaflets. The leaflets are dark green with characteristic crinkling at the tip. It is semi tall, early-bearing with quicker stabilization of yield and producing nuts with good chewing and market quality. It produces nuts with good chewing and market quality. It produces 10 kg ripe nuts/palm/year which gives 2 kg chali.

2.Sumangala: It is an introduction from Indonesia. Palm is tall with partially drooping habit. Under ideal conditions, it flowers in 4-5 years. The nuts are deep yellow to orange in colour and oblong to round in shape. It gives an average yield of 17.25 kg ripe nuts/palm/year at 10th year.

3.Sree Mangala:  An introduction from Singapore, its habit, flowering and fruit characters are similar to Sumangala. It gives an average yield of 15.63 kg/palm/year.

4.Mohitnagar: This is an indigenous cultivar from West Bengal. The important feature of this variety is its greater uniformity. The bunches are well-spaced and nuts are loosely arranged on the spikes which help in uniform development and enable efficient plant-protection measures. Early stabilization of yield and high annual yield potential of 3.7 kg chali/palm (15.8 kg ripe nuts) are its characteristics.

5.Calicut: Recommended for Andaman and Nicobar Islands, this is tall with longer internodes and crown. The stricking feature of this variety is its consistent and high yield potential (18.89 kg ripe nuts/palm years with a chali yield of 4.34 kg/palm) having well-placed bunches with round and bold nuts.


Source: Plantation Crops - K.V.Peter