Summer ploughing, trimming of bunds and destruction of crop
Selection of healthy seeds or resistant/ tolerant varieties.
Seed treatment (for diseases)
Early and timely planting/ sowing.
Raising of healthy nursery.
Seedling root dip/ nursery treatment in gall midge/ stem borer
Destruction of left over nurseries, removal of weeds from
field and cleaning of bunds.
Normal spacing with 45 hills/sq.m
Thirty (30) cm alley formations at every 2-3 m distance in
plant hopper and sheath blight endemic areas.
Balanced use of fertilizers and micronutrients as per local
Proper water management (alternate wetting and drying to avoid
water stagnation) in plant hopper endemic areas.
Harvest close to ground level.
B. Mechanical Practices
Collection of egg masses and larvae of pest and their
placement in bamboo cages for conservation of bio-control
Removal and destruction of diseased/pest infested parts of the
Clipping of rice seedlings tips.
Use of coir rope in rice crop for dislodging case worm and
leaf folder larvae etc.
C. Biological Control Practices
Bio-control agent viz. spiders, drynids, water bugs, mired
bugs, damsel flies, dragon flies, meadow grasshoppers,
staphylinid beetles, carabids, coccinellids, Apanteles,
Tetrastchus, Telenomus, Trichogramma, Bracon, Platygaster etc.
should be conserved.
Root dip treatment of rice seedlings with chlorpyriphos is
safe for the natural enemies i.e. gall midge endemic areas.
As an alternate to seedling root dip, apply 1.5 kg ai/ha of
carbofuran or phorate granules in nursery 5 days before
uprooting the seedlings for control of insect pests in early
Collection of egg masses of borers and putting them in a
bamboo cage-cum-percher till flowering which will permit the
escape of egg parasites and trap and kill the hatchint larvae.
Besides, these would allow perching of predatory birds.
Augmentative release of Trichogramma japonica or T. chilonis @
50,000-1,00,000/ha/10 days for 5 times starting from 30 days of
transplanting for control of stem borer and leaf folder
3. Pest defender ratio:
2:1 ratio may be useful to avoid application of pesticides.
D. Behavioural Control
Mass trapping of yellow stem borer male moths by installing
pheromone traps at the rate of 20 traps/ha at 10 days after
transplanting. Lures containing 5mg pheromone should be replaced
3 times during crop season.
E. Chemical Control Measures
Need based, judicious and safe application of pesticides are the
most vital tripartite segments of chemical control measures
under the ambit of IPM. It involves developing IPM skills to
play safe with environment by proper crop health monitoring,
observing ETL and conserving natural bio-control potential
before deciding in favour of use of chemical pesticides as a
F. Weed Management Practices
1. In Direct Sown Rice
1.1) The problem of weeds under direct sown rice growing
condition is far more serious than in transplanted rice. This is
particularly so when the crop is sown by broadcasting. Major
weeds of these situations are Panicum sp. Echinochloa colonum,
Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis,
Commelina benghalenes, Eclipta alba, Ischaemum rugosum, Eleusina
indica, Amaranthus spinosus.
1.2 Weed Management
By ensuring thorough land preparation, the weed can be
minimized. Summer ploughing is generally recorded for
facilitating stubble management as well as weed control. Rain
water conservation, preparation of seed bed before sowing by
way of providing one round harrowing and levelling after the
land preparation minimizes weeds. The fields should be given
summer ploughing to destroy perennial weeds. Stale seed bed
should be prepared by thorough seed bed preparation.
Timely sowing of crop may be encouraged to minimize crop
The crop should be sown in lines at recommended spacing to
facilitate inter weeding operation. The mechanical methods of
weed management should be practiced after 2-3 weeks and second
time if necessary after 4-6 weeks of sowing.
Apply Cyhalohop-Butyl @ 75-80g a.i. /ha at 18-20 days after
sowing in grassy weeds in direct seeded rice followed by one
hand weeding given after 4-6 weeks has been observed
Low land Rice
Major weeds under these situations are
Echinochloa colonum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus iria,
Monochoria vaginalis, Eleusina indica, Digitaria
sanguinalis, Ischaemum rugosum, and Fimbristylis littoralis.
Bunds and irrigation channels should be kept free from weeds.
Summer ploughing should be practiced wherever possible to
destroy perennial weed vegetation.
Stale seedbed should be prepared wherever possible .Pudding
should be done immediately before transplanting of rice.
As far as possible, rice seedling should be free from weed
seedlings at the time of transplanting.
Optimum plant population and application of recommended rate
of nutrients application would help to ensure adequate density
of plants population which could minimize the competition from
Maintain a thin layer of water on the soil surface to minimize
weed growth under such conditions.
Early weeding 3-4 weeks after transplanting in case where
mechanical methods are to be used.
One hand weeding may be given 4-6 weeks after transplanting,
Apply Butachlor @ 0.5 to 0.75 kg a.i/ha, or Loxadiargyl @ 100
a.i/ha or Chlomuron ethyl @ 6-8 g a.i/ha as per – emergence
within 4-6 days after transplanting.
Apply Metsulfuron methyl+ Chlorifuran methyl @ 4-6 g a.i/ ha
or Anilophos + 2-4 D @ 300-480 g a.i/ha at 3-10 days after
G. Nematode Management Practices
Nematode Management Practices are essential for obtaining the
desired yield potential of rice crop. Important nematodes and
their management approaches are as under:-
1. White tip nematode
Hot water treatment of seed at 52OC for 10 minutes
after a pre - soaks for 6 hours.
Sun drying seeds for 6 hours for 4 days.
Burning of stubbles to prevent any carries over infection.
Pre sowing of nursery bed treatment with Carbofuran 3G
granules @ 33 kg/ha.
Pre- soaking seed for 6 hours in 0.2% solution of Mancozeb and
Growing resistance varieties like Ratna, Triveni, TMK, TMK9,
Surya, Kaveri, and Indira.
Application of neem cake at 100-120 kg/ha.
Grow resistance varieties like TMK 9, Annapurna in endemic
Pre- sowing treatment of nursery bed with Carbofuran 3G
granules @ 33 kg/ha.
Seed soaking with 0.2% solution of monocrotophos for 6 hours.
Soil application of Carbofuran 3G @ 33 kg/ha.
Growing Sesbania rostrata as intercrop.
Growing potato or groundnut as rotation crops.
Root Knot nematode
Rotation with the crop like sweet potato, castor, sunflower,
cowpea, sesamum, onion.
Growing resistance varieties like TKM-6, Hamsa, IR64 and
Ramakrishna in endemic areas.
Soil application of Carbofuran 3G.
H. Rodent Management Practices
(Working Index (ETL: Fifteen live burrows per hectare)
Bund trimming specially to minimize rodent harbourage.
Weed management to reduce alternate source of food.
Employment of indigenous traps preferably one month after
Six weeks after transplantation application of bromodiolone
(0,005% a.i.) in baits.
The residual live burrows may be treated with second
application of bromodiolone (0,005%).
The above control operations with rodenticides except Zinc
phosphide (as rodent develop bait shyness) may be repeated if
the rodent population exceeds working index.
Optimum period for undertaking control operation in six weeks
Zinc phosphide (2.5%) in baits may be applied in rodent
For getting effective control, it is recommended that zinc
phosphide with ISI mark in 10 gm pouches preferably in
manufacturers package should be procured.