Back | home


  Integrated Plant Protection for Rice  
 Package of Practice | Varietal Selection | Post Harvest Information


A. Cultural Practices
  1. Summer ploughing, trimming of bunds and destruction of crop residues.

  2. Selection of healthy seeds or resistant/ tolerant varieties.

  3. Seed treatment (for diseases)

  4. Early and timely planting/ sowing.

  5. Raising of healthy nursery.

  6. Seedling root dip/ nursery treatment in gall midge/ stem borer endemic areas 

  7. Destruction of left over nurseries, removal of weeds from field and cleaning of bunds.

  8. Normal spacing with 45 hills/sq.m

  9. Thirty (30) cm alley formations at every 2-3 m distance in plant hopper and sheath blight endemic areas.

  10. Balanced use of fertilizers and micronutrients as per local recommendations.

  11. Proper water management (alternate wetting and drying to avoid water stagnation) in   plant hopper endemic areas.

  12. Harvest close to ground level.

B. Mechanical Practices

  1. Collection of egg masses and larvae of pest and their placement in bamboo cages for conservation of bio-control agents

  2. Removal and destruction of diseased/pest infested parts of the plants.

  3. Clipping of rice seedlings tips.

  4. Use of coir rope in rice crop for dislodging case worm and leaf folder larvae etc.

C. Biological Control Practices

1. Conservation:

  • Bio-control agent viz. spiders, drynids, water bugs, mired bugs, damsel flies, dragon flies, meadow grasshoppers, staphylinid beetles, carabids, coccinellids, Apanteles, Tetrastchus, Telenomus, Trichogramma, Bracon, Platygaster etc. should be conserved.

  • Root dip treatment of rice seedlings with chlorpyriphos is safe for the natural enemies i.e. gall midge endemic areas.

  • As an alternate to seedling root dip, apply 1.5 kg ai/ha of carbofuran or phorate granules in nursery 5 days before uprooting the seedlings for control of insect pests in early transplanted crop.

  • Collection of egg masses of borers and putting them in a bamboo cage-cum-percher till flowering which will permit the escape of egg parasites and trap and kill the hatchint larvae. Besides, these would allow perching of predatory birds.

2. Augmentation: Augmentative release of Trichogramma japonica or T. chilonis @ 50,000-1,00,000/ha/10 days for 5 times starting from 30 days of transplanting for control of stem borer and leaf folder respectively.

3. Pest defender ratio: 2:1 ratio may be useful to avoid application of pesticides.

D. Behavioural Control

Mass trapping of yellow stem borer male moths by installing pheromone traps at the rate of 20 traps/ha at 10 days after transplanting. Lures containing 5mg pheromone should be replaced 3 times during crop season.

E. Chemical Control Measures

Need based, judicious and safe application of pesticides are the most vital tripartite segments of chemical control measures under the ambit of IPM. It involves developing IPM skills to play safe with environment by proper crop health monitoring, observing ETL and conserving natural bio-control potential before deciding in favour of use of chemical pesticides as a large resort.

F. Weed Management Practices

1. In Direct Sown Rice

1.1) The problem of weeds under direct sown rice growing condition is far more serious than in transplanted rice. This is particularly so when the crop is sown  by broadcasting. Major weeds of these situations are Panicum sp. Echinochloa colonum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus iria, Cyperus difformis, Commelina benghalenes, Eclipta alba, Ischaemum rugosum, Eleusina indica, Amaranthus spinosus.

1.2 Weed Management

  • By ensuring thorough land preparation, the weed can be minimized. Summer ploughing is generally recorded for facilitating stubble management as well as weed control. Rain water conservation, preparation of seed bed before sowing by way of providing one round harrowing and levelling after the land preparation minimizes weeds. The fields should be given summer ploughing to destroy perennial weeds. Stale seed bed should be prepared by thorough seed bed preparation.

  • Timely sowing of crop may be encouraged to minimize crop weed       competition.

  • The crop should be sown in lines at recommended spacing to facilitate inter weeding operation. The mechanical methods of weed management should be practiced after 2-3 weeks and second time if necessary after 4-6 weeks of sowing.

  • Apply Cyhalohop-Butyl @ 75-80g a.i. /ha at 18-20 days after sowing in grassy weeds in direct seeded rice followed by one hand weeding given after 4-6 weeks has been observed effective.

2. Under Low land Rice

2.1) Major weeds under these situations are Echinochloa colonum, Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus iria, Monochoria vaginalis, Eleusina indica, Digitaria      sanguinalis, Ischaemum rugosum, and Fimbristylis littoralis.

2.2) Weed Management

  1. Bunds and irrigation channels should be kept free from weeds.

  2. Summer ploughing should be practiced wherever possible to destroy perennial weed vegetation.

  3. Stale seedbed should be prepared wherever possible .Pudding should be done immediately before transplanting of rice.

  4. As far as possible, rice seedling should be free from weed seedlings at the time of transplanting.

  5. Optimum plant population and application of recommended rate of nutrients application would help to ensure adequate density of plants population which could minimize the competition from weeds.

  6. Maintain a thin layer of water on the soil surface to minimize weed growth under such conditions.

  7. Early weeding 3-4 weeks after transplanting in case where mechanical methods are to be used.

  8. One hand weeding may be given 4-6 weeks after transplanting, if necessary.

  9. Apply Butachlor @ 0.5 to 0.75 kg a.i/ha, or Loxadiargyl @ 100 a.i/ha or Chlomuron ethyl @ 6-8 g a.i/ha as per emergence within 4-6 days after transplanting.

  10. Apply Metsulfuron methyl+ Chlorifuran methyl @ 4-6 g a.i/ ha or Anilophos + 2-4 D @ 300-480 g a.i/ha at 3-10 days after transplanting.

G. Nematode Management Practices

Nematode Management Practices are essential for obtaining the desired yield potential of rice crop. Important nematodes and their management approaches are as under:-

1. White tip nematode (Aphelenchoides hesseyi)

  • Hot water treatment of seed at 52OC for 10 minutes after a pre - soaks for 6 hours.

  • Sun drying seeds for 6 hours for 4 days.

  • Burning of stubbles to prevent any carries over infection.

  • Pre sowing of nursery bed treatment with Carbofuran 3G granules @ 33 kg/ha.

  • Pre- soaking seed for 6 hours in 0.2% solution of Mancozeb and Monocrotophos.

  • Growing resistance varieties like Ratna, Triveni, TMK, TMK9, Surya, Kaveri, and  Indira.

2. Rice Root nematode (Hirschmanniella oryzae)

  • Application of neem cake at 100-120 kg/ha.

  • Grow resistance varieties like TMK 9, Annapurna in endemic areas.

  • Pre- sowing treatment of nursery bed with Carbofuran 3G granules @ 33 kg/ha.

  • Seed soaking with 0.2% solution of monocrotophos for 6 hours.

  • Soil application of Carbofuran 3G @ 33 kg/ha.

  • Growing Sesbania rostrata as intercrop.

  • Growing potato or groundnut as rotation crops.

3. Root Knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola)

  • Rotation with the crop like sweet potato, castor, sunflower, cowpea, sesamum, onion.

  • Growing resistance varieties like TKM-6, Hamsa, IR64 and Ramakrishna in endemic areas.

  • Soil application of Carbofuran 3G.

H. Rodent Management Practices (Working Index (ETL: Fifteen live burrows per hectare)

  1. Bund trimming specially to minimize rodent harbourage.

  2. Weed management to reduce alternate source of food.

  3. Employment of indigenous traps preferably one month after transplantation.

  4. Six weeks after transplantation application of bromodiolone (0,005% a.i.) in baits.

  5. The residual live burrows may be treated with second application of bromodiolone (0,005%).

  6. The above control operations with rodenticides except Zinc phosphide (as rodent develop bait shyness) may be repeated if the rodent population exceeds working index.


  • Optimum period for undertaking control operation in six weeks after transplantation.

  • Zinc phosphide (2.5%) in baits may be applied in rodent outbreak situation.

  • For getting effective control, it is recommended that zinc phosphide with ISI mark in 10 gm pouches preferably in manufacturers package should be procured.

Source: Department of Agriculture, Shillong, Government of Meghalaya