Food Processing  

Process Fruits & Vegetable (Squash, Jam, Jelly, Squash, Ginger etc..)


The following equipments are required for preparation of different products as describe in each case. Stainless steel pan, stove, weight box & balance, juice extractor, wooden laddle, pineapple puncher (Stainless steel glass may also be used) Refractometer&Thermometer.

Extraction of Fruit Juices: Select fully ripe or matured fruits, free from diseases and insect damages for processing:

Orange: Peel the oranges and immediately extract the Juice with the help of juice extractor and simultaneously add 50gms/10 table spoonful approximately, from the required quantity of sugar to prevent bitter of the juice.

  • Sohpyrshong (Carambola): Wash the fruits thoroughly and extract the juice with the help of juice extractor.

  • Sohbrap (Passion Frijit): Wash the fruits and cut them into halves with the help of a stainless steel knife and extract the pulp from the cut fruits with a spoon. Extract the juice by passing the pulp through a net cloth.

  • Sohiong (Prunus Nepalensis): Clean and wash the fruits properly and boil in water till the fruits become soft. Extract the pulp by crushing the boil fruit in a bamboo sieve.


Mixed the juice with Syrup and add the whole quantity of Potassium Meta Bi-Sulphide by first dissolving it in a spoon of water or sodium benzoate in case of Sohiong preparations, one or two drops of essence and a pinch of colour where ever is necessary, fill the prepared squashes in clean sterilized bottles, seal properly and store in a cool dark place.


Jam may be prepared from a single fruit or combination of two or more fruits, dried, canned fruits or preserved pulps may also be used.

Extraction of Pulps: Fruits may be crushed or cut into small pieces with the help of stainless steel knife and boil with a sufficient quantity of water, then passed the boiled fruits through a fine sieve to obtain the pulp.


  • 1Kg pulp

  • 1Kg sugar

  • 5 gms ready made fruit pectin

  • 2 gms citric acid (Citric acid is not necessary in case Plum & Sohiong jam).

Colour may be used in case of mixed fruit jam. Sprinkle the required quantity of Pectin mixed with small quantity of sugar to the pulp and boiled for 5 minutes then add equal quantity of sugar to the pulp (i.e., l kg pulp & 1 kg Sugar) and heat the content, stir well with wooden laddle till heavy consistency and add citric acid. When the total soluble solids reached 68.5 Brix as determined by "Refractometer" then stops boiling, fill the prepared jam in clean and sterilized jars and seal properly. If the jam is to be packed in cans it should be filled while it is still hot, seal, invert the cans and pasteurized for about 30 minutes at 82  C to 85  C and cool in water. In case of larger size cans, i.e., above A-2 cans, pasteurization is not necessary.



  • 1 Kg Pectin extract

  • 1 Kg Sugar

  • 10 gms ready made fruit pectin

  • 7 gms citric acid

Ripe but not over ripe fruits are selected slightly unripe yields more pectin than over ripe fruits, because as the fruit ripens the pectin present in it, decomposes into peptic acid which does not form into jelly with acid and sugar. In practice a mixture of ripe and under ripe fruits are used, under ripe fruits for their Pectin content and ripe ones for their flavour. Generally, fruits like guava, apples are not required to peel; they are only washed and cut into thin slices of not less than " thickness.

Extraction of Pectin or Fruit Extract: Fruit slices are boiled with equal volume of water (i.e., 2kg water to l kg fruit in case of guava & oranges) without stirring. In case of highly juicy fruits (i.e., berries likes grapes etc) the fruits arc merely crushed and boiled without addition of water.

Time required for boiling (optimum)-

  • Apple (20 -25 minutes)

  • Guava (30 -35 minutes)

  • Orange (45 -60 minutes)

Pectin content test: Pectin content of fruit extract may be determined by taking 1 ml of boiled fruit extract in a test tube and add 3 ml alcohol (90 %) in the test tube and leave for few minute till clotting is formed. If a single clot is formed, it indicates that the fruit extract contains rich pectin, where as if small unstable clot is formed it indicates poor pectin.

Straining: The pectin extract or fruit extract may be pass through bags of linen, flannel or through felt or cheese cloth folded several times to obtain a clear extract. The bags or cloth should be first scalded in boiling water, squeeze and use while still hot and wet.(Bags containing fruit extract should not be squeezed, otherwise the extract will not be clear due to fruit particles passing through the pores in the bag).

Adding of Sugar and Cooking: Generally equal quantity of sugar (i.e., 1 kg sugar, 1 kg pectin extract) is sprinkled over the pectin while it is boiling with continuous stirring to ensure complete dissolution of sugar. The mixture is then filtered through a muslin cloth to remove impurities and boil all over again in a brisk fire till it starts boiling, sprinkle 10 gms ready made fruit pectin mixed with small quantity of sugar (10 gms) over the mixture and add citric acid just before the end point, i.e., when temperature reaches 221 F or total soluble solids reached 65 Brix as measured with a Brix metre.

Determination of end point: If Refractometer and Thermometer are not available the following simple tests may be adopted to ensure whether the jelly is set or not.

  1. Cold plate test: A drop of the boiling liquid from the pan is taken and placed on a plate and allowed to cool quickly. If the jelly is about to set, the mixture on the plate will crinkle when pushed with the finger. The main drawback of this method is that while the drop on the plate is cooling, the jelly mixture continued to boil in the pan with the result that there is risk of over-cooking the product or of missing the correct setting point.

  2. Sheet or flake test: In this case a small portion of the jelly is taken with a large spoon or wooden ladle, and allow cooling for a few seconds and letting it drop. If the jelly drops like syrup, it requires further concentration but if it falls in the form of flakes or sheet the end point has reached.


Marmalade is generally a fruit jelly of citrus fruits where the shredded peel of a fruit is included as suspended materials.


  • 1 kg pectin fruit extract

  • 1 kg sugar

  • 10 gms ready made pectin

  • 5 gms citric acid

  • 62 gms shreds

Extraction of pectin or Fruit extract: The outer yellow flavedo portion of tight skin citrus fruits containing colouring matter and volatile oil are peeled off thinly from the fruit, where as loose skin citrus fruits like orange, the whole skin is removed by hand. Portion of the peels may be kept for preparing shreds for suspension in the marmalade. The fruits are then cut into thin slices (i.e., 0.3 cm to 0 .45 cm thick) and boiled gently by simmering with water 2 to 3 times of its weight for 45 to 60 minutes.

Staining and pectin test: Same as in jelly making.

Preparing of shreds: The yellow portion of the peels of tight skin citrus fruits and in case of loose skin fruits the white portion of the loose skin fruit the white portion of the skin are first removed and cut into shreds of 0.8 cms to 1.2 cms thick and 1.9 cms to 2.5 cms long. The shreds are then boiling first for 10 to 15 minutes and strain the content. Continue boiling for three times using fresh water each time to avoid bitterness. Keep the shreds after boiling covered with water till they are ready for use.

Cooking: The pectin extract is heated with equal amount of sugar over a brisk fire till the sugar is dissolved and filter through a muslin cloth to remove impurities. Boil it again when it starts boiling, ready made fruit pectin mixed with small quantity of sugar (approx 10 gms) is added. Continue the boiling till the end point reaches 68 Brix. Strain the prepared shreds and tie in a muslin cloth and dip in the marmalade while boiling. When it reaches the end point. The shred or peels are removed from the muslin cloth and added to marmalade. Boiling process should not take more than 20 minutes. Short boiling produces a bright and sparkling marmalade.

Pour the marmalade in a shallow pan, and stir slowly to keep the shreds uniformly distributed in the marmalade. When the temperature comes down 82 C to 88 C a thin film begins to form on the surface of the marmalade and it becomes thick to prevent floating of the shreds to the surface. When the marmalade is cooled, the scum on top is removed and if the prepared marmalade is to be kept for more than six months time, 9 gms pre-dissolved potassium metabisulphide in a spoon of water is added per 100 Kgs marmalade, stir well and pack in jars only.

Flavouring: It is desirable to add a small amount of flavour to the product, because most of the natural flavour volatizes during the boiling and cooking process. Generally a small quantity of orange oil may be added to the marmalade at the time of filling into jars or cans.

Ginger Products

Select tender large sized fibreless rhizomes (Preferably Nadia Variety Ginger) and scrape them by a stainless steel knife or bamboo knife to remove the skin, rootlets and damaged portions. For preparations of mixed pickles slightly more matured portions may be used. Cut the scraped rhizomes into desired size and shape as cubes, tidbits or shreds as the case may be.

Ginger in brine


  1. Ginger shreds                       1 Kg

  2. Salt                                      360 gms

  3. Water                                   1640 ml           

  4. Citric acid                             20 ml

Dissolved the whole quantity of salt in 1640 ml of water and filter the content in a muslin cloth, then add citric acid to the solution. Place the ginger shreds in suitable container, fill with the prepared solution, closed the container airtight and allow curing for 2 weeks time.

Ginger preserve


  • Ginger cubes / tidbits                        1 Kg

  • Sugar                                               1.5 Kgs

  • Water                                               3.51its

  • Citric acid                                          5.0 gms

Ginger cubes or tidbits are subjected to domestic pressure cooking at 15 to 16 lbs for one hour in a solution containing 2 litres of water and 1 gm citric acid for softening, drain the content in a container for which the same may be used for preparation of ginger, pineapple beverage. Boil 1.5 Kgs sugar in 3.5 litres of water till the whole quantity of sugar is dissolved, filter, add the boiled ginger while the syrup is still hot and keep for 6 hours for the ginger to absorb the syrup. Boil again the content daily up to seven days raising 10 Brix each time till it reaches 60 Brix and add 5 gms citric acid and continue boiling till it reaches 73  Brix and preserved in air tight containers.

Ginger Candy


  1. Ginger preserved

  2. Boora sugar or icing sugar.

Ginger preserved of 2 to 3 months old is heated and drain the syrup while it is still hot. The cubes / tidbits are then rolled in Borra or icing sugar and air dried overnight. The drained syrup after candy making may be used for preparing ginger syrup, beverage etc.

Ginger- Pineapple beverage


  1. Pineapple juice (pure)                       500 ml

  2. Sugar                                               300 gms

  3. Water                                               1200 ml

  4. Drained syrup after candy                 250 ml (to be standardized according to taste)   making.


Ginger extract

  1. Pineapple essence                             2 drops

Dissolve the sugar in water, filter and mix all the above other ingredients, chilli if necessary and serve.


Pickles may be prepared from a single unripe fruits or vegetables or a mixture of both according to one's liking.

Curing of fruits / vegetables: Dissolve 360 gms common salt in 1640 ml of water (18% salt solution) and filter in a muslin cloth, then add 2 gms sodium benzoate and 5 gms turmeric powder and stir well. Place 1 Kg of the cut fruits / vegetables in suitable containers having lids, fill in with the above prepared solution, close the containers properly and allow to cure for a minimum period of 2 (two) weeks time.


  1. 1 Kg fruit / vegetables

  2. 10 gms sarson

  3. 10 gms dhania

  4. 10 gms methi

  5. 10 gms kalajeera

  6. 10 gms sauff

  7. 10 gms ajwain

  8. 30 gms chilli powder

  9. 750 ml mustard oil

After curing period is over, drain off the solution properly from the fruits / vegetables and mix with the already roasted and ground spices, then place the fruits / vegetables in sterilized bottles and fill in with pre-cooked & cooled mustard oil and seal properly.

Tomato Ketchup

Select deep red well matured tomatoes, free from blemishes and insect damage.


  • Tomatoes         6 Kgs              Cinnamon (Dalchini)                5 gms

  • Onion               100 gms          Cumin (Jeera)                        2 gms

  • Garlic               5gms              (Salt to taste)                            ------    

  • Cloves (long)    2 gms              Red Chilly powder                   5 gms

  • Cardamom       2 gms              Acetic acid                              10 ml

  • Black Pepper    1 gms               Sodium Benzoate                   1 gms

Preparation: Cut the tomatoes into small pieces and boil in an aluminium pan till they become soft, then pass the boiled tomatoes through a fine bamboo sieve to obtain a clear pulp free from skin and seeds. Boil the pulp again along with the required quantity of sugar and dip ground spices tied in a muslin cloth while boiling and remove when the ketchup is ready and add salt towards the end of boiling.

When the ketchup is ready add the required quantity of Acetic acid and stir properly followed by Sodium Benzoate, stir and keep in air tight containers.

Source: The Agriculture Information Wing, Directorate of Agriculture, Shillong, Meghalaya


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