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 Farm Machinery & Hands Tools  

Tillage and Land Clearing Implements

Light ridger plough

Tillage with the help of country plough was found to be very tedious with low inversion percentage. This was improved by placing two inversion plates fitted on a broad share. This “Light Ridger plough” increases the inversion percentage to 80 % rather than 37.2% by the country plough and resulted in cost saving of 46%.

Hand grass slasher

The most commonly used tool by farmers to clear and bushes is “dao”. Using a dao for cutting grasses and bushes, forces the worker to stand in bend posture resulting in low hours of continous working. A hand grass slasher was developed which allowed the worker to work in standing posture thus minimizing discomfort. Since both sides of blades were sharpened. It gives both strokes as positive, resulting in field capacity of 0.02 ha/hr compared to 0.0061 ha/hr by dao.

Sowing Implements

Metallic dibbler: This small hand tool is designed for the sloppy cultivation and is an improvement over the existing design locally used. Locally wooden made tip dibblers are used to sow seed at regular interval in sloppy land. The wooden tip leads to frequent breakage and uneven sowing depth. The same has been avoided by placing a metallic cone of 10 cm height and 3.6 cm diameter with a circular plate fixed at 6 cm to maintain depth of sowing. This gives better germination of seed and regular interval of sowing.

Bardoli seed drill: This bullock drawn seed drill was developed for valley and terrace cultivation to place bold seeds in rows. This is an alternative to the broadcasting method used by farmers.

Wheel hoe drill: It is a single row sowing device which can be used for sowing mustard/linseed, paddy, groundnut, maize, etc with change in metering mechanism. The device weighing around 16 kg can be carried easily on hilly slopes. The field capacity of the implement is 0.0167 to 0.033 ha/hr based on row to row distance.

Adjustable row marker: The device has been designed to mark the rows at equal distance to promote row farming especially in terraced and valley land cultivation while working with single row devices. It can make three rows at a time with row to row distance varying from 10 to 60 cm with a field capacity of 0.167 ha/hr.

Hand Tools and Weeding Devices

Hand fork: The device consists of comb like structure which is used to collect cut grasses, weeds and cut crops lying in the field. This reduces labour consumption by 74% as compared to manual collection.

Weeder with circular blade: This is a multipurpose weeding device which can be used for weeding in between the rows. These facilities to operate in standing postures thus reducing the drudgery of operation

Wheel hoe with its attachments: The wheel hoe with triangular sweep blade can be used to perform weeding operation between two rows of crops, with a field capacity of 0.1 ha/day. Different types of blades as V-blade, earthening blade, etc can be used as per soil conditions.

Engine operated bush/grass cutter: In order to clean the grass and bushes on sloppy land, an engine operated device has been developed. The device can cut grasses and bushes up to 2 cm diameter with height up to 1.5 meter and with field capacity of 0.58 ha/day. The cost of operation is Rs 278/ha as compared to manual cost of operation Rs. 1400/ha. It saves 91.6% of the time as compared to manual cutting. Suitable design amendments are still in progress to make it perfect while working in undulated and sloppy fields.

 

Harvesting and Post Harvesting Tools

Tubular maize sheller: The hand held device is used to remove maize grains from cobs. With the help of the device, one person can shell out 24.6 kg grains/hr compared to 10.1 kg/hr by manual method of rubbing, thus achieving a net saving of more than 100% in labour cost.

Fruit harvester: Various types of manual fruit harvesters have been designed for harvesting fruit crop like orange. The new devices based on Push & Twist, Hold & Twist. Blade Cutting actions help in reducing impact damage to fruits due to free fall in traditional methods of fruit harvesting viz., snatching or pulling of fruits, hitting with a stick, shaking tree/branches etc. About 300 fruits/man-hour can be harvested by using these devices.

Source: ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam

   

Water Resources | Soil Conservation & Forestry | Fertilizers